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Area & DensityExpand

Random City Skyline

The area and density of New Jersey is based on the decennial U.S. Census reporting of area and the New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development report of population estimates. 

Population density reflects the number of people of people per square mile in a specific municipality, county, Congressional or Legislative district. Based on the 2010 Census, New Jersey is the densest state in the Nation.


Area & Density Variables & Available Data

Data Variables Data Variable Description Available Years of Data
Area As reported by municipality in the U.S. decennial Census, the land area of the community rounded to the nearest hundreth of a mile. 2010 | 2000 | 1990 | 1980
Density The municipal population density is calculated by dividing the estimated population from the New Jersey State Data Center estimates by the area in square miles. 1982 - 2015
CrimeExpand

Finger Prints and magnifying glass

Crime data in New Jersey is based on the annual Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) by individual municipal law enforcement agencies, reported by the New Jersey State Police or the Federal Bureau of Investigation, depending on availability. While the New Jersey UCR reporting typically lags two years (for example, the 2011 UCR was generated in 2013), it is a reliable and important measure of incidents of crime in New Jersey municipalities. The program generates a reliable set of criminal statistics for use by law enforcement, and importantly as a leading social indicator.


Crime Variables & Available Data

Data Variables Data Variable Description Available Years of Data
Violent Crimes The number of violent crimes reported for a given year is recorded in the municipality of occurrence. Violent crime is composed of four offenses: murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery and aggravated assault. 2011 - 2018
Non-violent Crimes Non-violent crimes reports the number of non-violent crimes reported for a given year in the municipality of occurrence. They include auto theft, burglary and larceny. 2011 - 2018
Election ResultsExpand

green and red signs that read "choice"

The votes cast for each candidate. Votes are reported in the year that the ballot was cast. Gubernatorial, State Senate and General Assembly elections for the state are reported in the year the vote is cast. Similarly, Presidential, US Senate and Congressional election results are reported in the year that votes were cast.

Data have been gathered from reports of the Elections Division, New Jersey Department of State with party registrations provided by the county superintendents of elections or boards of election. In a few municipalities split into more than one legislative or congressional district, the votes shown may not add to the official county, total since Federal absentee ballots are tabulated only on a municipal-wide basis. In split municipalities, votes have been apportioned among legislative and congressional districts in proportion to total population.


Election Results Variables & Available Data

Data Variables Data Variable Description Available Years of Data
Congress Number of votes for both the Democratic candidate and the Republican candidate.

2018 | 2016 | 2014 | 2012 | 2010 | 2004 | 2002 | 2000 | 1998 | 1996 | 1994 | 1992 | 1988 | 1986 | 1984

General Assembly Number of votes for both the two Democratic candidates and the two Republican candidates.

2017 | 2015 | 2013 | 2011 | 2003 | 1999 | 1997 | 1995 | 1993 | 1991 | 1989

Governor Number of votes for both the Democratic candidate and the Republican candidate.

2017 | 2013 | 2009 | 2005 | 1997 | 1993 | 1989 | 1985

President Number of votes for both the Democratic candidate and the Republican candidate.

2016 | 2012 | 2008 | 2004 | 2000 | 1996 | 1988 | 1984

State Senate Number of votes for both the Democratic candidate and the Republican candidate.

2013 | 2011 | 2007 | 2003 | 1997 | 1993 | 1991 | 1987 | 1983

U.S. Senate Number of votes for both the Democratic candidate and the Republican candidate.

2018 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2008 | 2006 | 2002 | 2000 |1996 | 1994 | 1990 | 1988 | 1984

EmploymentExpand

Guy welding in a workshop

Unemployment measures the relative distribution of economic well-being in an economy. When unemployment is low, many people who want to work have jobs and are earning wages, thus enabling them to consume goods and services. In contrast, if unemployment is high, fewer people are earning wages, and are not purchasing or consuming the goods and services they desire. Employment data provides a surrogate measure of household wealth. The data presented in the New Jersey Data Book is provided by the New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, Labor Planning and Analysis as of March, and derived from The Bureau of Labor Statistics and the U.S. Census.


Employment Variables & Available Data

Data Variables Data Variable Description Available Years of Data
Workforce Workforce measures the average annual number of residents in the labor force. The value indicates the resident employment regardless of where they work. 2012 - 2018
Unemployed Reports the average annual number of unemployed workers living in the geography. 2012 - 2018
% Unemployed The percentage represents the annual average number of unemployed workers in the year as a percentage of the same year’s labor force. 2012 - 2018
Fiscal ResourcesExpand

Image of the bank vault

Taxable property value, historically known and reported as Equalized Valuation, is the estimated true value of taxable property in a municipality or school district. Municipal tax assessors place a tax assessment on every parcel of real property within their municipality. The relation of the assessments to the actual true value of the property may vary from place to place. In order to provide for the fair distribution of State school aid, the Department of the Treasury has implemented a system to estimate the true value of property in every municipality and school district – the value that an informed buyer would pay and a willing seller would accept. Actual sales prices of properties are compared with their tax assessments and the results are consolidated for each municipality. Adjustments then are made to convert the tax assessor’s total values to the estimated full true value for the entire municipality – the Equalized Valuation.


Fiscal Resources Variables & Available Data

Data Variables Data Variable Description Available Years of Data
Taxable Property Value Taxable property value, historically known and reported as Equalized Valuation, is the estimated true value of taxable property in a municipality or school district. Municipal tax assessors place a tax assessment on every parcel of real property within their municipality. The relation of the assessments to the actual true value of the property may vary from place to place. In order to provide for the fair distribution of State school aid, the Department of the Treasury has implemented a system to estimate the true value of property in every municipality and school district – the value that an informed buyer would pay and a willing seller would accept. Actual sales prices of properties are compared with their tax assessments and the results are consolidated for each municipality. Adjustments then are made to convert the tax assessor’s total values to the estimated full true value for the entire municipality – the Equalized Valuation. 1983 - 2018
Per Capita Taxable Property Value The Equalized Valuation of each municipality is divided by the most recent estimated population to find the relative taxable property wealth of the municipality. The Equalized Valuation used here for municipalities uses sales during the most recent calendar year, as reported on the website of the New Jersey Division of Local Government Services. 1983 - 2018
Personal Income per Taxpayer and Dependents The New Jersey Department of the Treasury, using State income tax returns, compiles the total personal income for taxpayers in each municipality in order to evaluate the fiscal capacity of the municipality for the purpose of distributing State aid for schools. The Department also compiles the number of New Jersey income taxpayers and their dependents. Under current conditions, the number of New Jersey income taxpayers and their dependents comprise about 90% of the estimated total population of the state.

These data are provided the Department of the TreasuryDepartment of the Treasury to the Department of Education, which has made them available to the New Jersey Data Book. The availability of income data generally lags property tax data by two years. In cases where data is not available, it may have been suppressed for confidentiality due to low population.
2008 - 2016
Percentage Residential Value In the process of calculating Equalized Valuation, every municipal tax assessor is required to classify each parcel of real property in the municipality into one of seven categories: Vacant Land, Residential, Farm Homestead, Farmland, Commercial, Industrial, or Apartment. The number of parcels and the assessed value of each is reported on the website of the New Jersey Division of Local Government Services, permitting calculation of the percentage of the tax base classified as Residential. 2010 - 2018
Moody's Credit Rating The following ratings have been assigned to municipal obligations by Moody’s Investors’ Service.

Aaa – Highest Quality
Aa – High Quality
A – Upper Medium Grade
Baa – Medium Grade
Ba – Medium Grade
B – Speculative, subject to high credit risk
Caa – Poor Standing
Ca – Highly Speculative
C – Poor Prospects, typically in default

Moody’s appends numerical modifiers of 1, 2 or 3 to each generic rating classification from Aa through Caa. The modifier 1 indicates that the obligation ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category; the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking; and the modifier 3 indicates a ranking in the lower end of that generic rating category.
1983 - 2017
Government ExpendituresExpand

Gov Expenditure image

 


Government Expenditure Variables & Available Data

Data Variables Data Variable Description Available Years of Data
Municipal Budget

The revenue side of the municipal budget is calculated by adding the tax levies shown in the county abstract of ratables for:

(1) municipal budget (Col.12ciia)

(2) municipal open space budget (Col.12ciib)

(3) municipal library budget (Col.12ciic)

(4) total of all miscellaneous revenues (Col.14D)

The county abstract of ratables is from the website of the New Jersey Division of Local Government Services.

2010 - 2018

Municipal Budget per Capita

The municipal budget is divided by the most recent population of the municipality to find the municipal budget per capita.

2010 - 2018
HousingExpand

Architect in front of a house

Except as indicated below, all Census data are as reported by the Bureau of the Census. Estimated data are from the American Community Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census during noted years. New residential building permits and certificates of occupancy are from the New Jersey Construction Reporter, Annual report.


Housing Variables & Available Data

Data Variables Data Variable Description Available Years of Data
Residential Building Permits New residential building permits. The total number of new residential units authorized for construction in the year. 1994 - 2018
Certificates of Occupancy New residential certificates of occupancy issued in the year. 1999 - 2018
Occupied Units Paying Rent The number of renter-occupied housing units. 2012 - 2017
Median Rent The Median Gross Monthly Rent as reported by the Bureau of the Census for counties, municipalities, and congressional districts. Estimated for legislative districts by weighing municipal medians in proportion to the number of 2010 renter-occupied housing units in each municipality. 2012 - 2017
Average Residential Property Value The average value of residential properties. 2012 - 2018
Housing Units The number of housing units 2010 | 2000
Occupied Units The number of occupied housing units 2010 | 2000
% Occupied Units Represents the average number of occupied housing units as a percent of the total housing units.. 2010 | 2000
Owner Occupied Units The number of housing units occupied by the owners of those units. 2010 | 2000
% Owner Occupied Units Represents the average number of housing units occupied by the owners of the units as a percent of total housing units. 2010 | 2000
PopulationExpand

people collage

New Jersey population data is based on the decennial Census which counts the U.S. population every ten years. For non-census years that do not include U.S. Census population count, estimated data are from the New Jersey State Data Center or from the American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census, using the 5-year sampling.

Government and businesses use census counts for funding allocations, to inform policy and to aid in city planning. The calculations frequently rely on the ACS and Census counts, with notations as to which population count is used. Accurate reporting of population down to the municipal level is possible using the decennial Census, the 5-year estimated ACS population figures, or the estimates of the New Jersey State Data Center.

Changes in measures of the population and demographics can provide insights to the changing structure, social and economic challenges and opportunities facing municipalities in New Jersey.

Use the New Jersey Data Book to find New Jersey population data by municipality, county, Congressional District, or Legislative District.


Population Variables & Available Data

Data Variables Data Variable Description Available Years of Data
Census Population Census Population is the record from the U.S. Census and is reported unchanged for ten years (2010-2019). Reported for 2010, this is the total population as of April 2010. 2010 | 2000 | 1990 | 1980
Estimated Population This is the total population in a New Jersey municipality, from the U.S. Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program (PEP), as reported by the New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. 1980 - 2018
% Change Percent change provides the percentage population change within a municipality between the most current Census data (e.g. 2010) and the year selected for current estimated population. The number reported is calculated for the New Jersey Data Book. 1980 - 2018
Population 25+ Population 25+ reports the number of residents by municipality in New Jersey who are 25 years and over in age, as reported by the American Community Survey. 2010 - 2017
College Graduates College Graduates reports the number of college graduates by municipality as reported in the year by the American Community Survey. 2010 - 2017
% College Graduates This variable provides the college educational attainment of New Jersey residents using data from the American Community Survey 5-year estimates, and population counts for residents that are 25 years or older. The calculation reported in the New Jersey Data Book represents the percentage of the population 25 years and over within a municipality with a bachelor’s degree or higher. 2010 - 2017
Foreign Born Reports the number of people in the New Jersey population within a municipality who were not born U.S. citizens. This includes naturalized citizens, lawful permanent residents, temporary migrants, and undocumented migrants. Native born refers to anyone born in the United States, Puerto Rico, or a U.S. Island Area (U.S. Census, 2010). The number reported by the New Jersey Data Book reflects the people born outside the United States based on the 5-year estimated American Community Survey. 2010 - 2017
% Foreign Born This reports the percentage of the New Jersey population born outside the United States living in each municipality. The percentage is computed by the New Jersey Data Book based on the 5-year American Community Survey. 2010 - 2017
African American The number of African-Americans, self-identified, by municipality as reported in the U.S. Census count for the New Jersey population. 2010 | 2000 | 1990 | 1980
% African American As reported, this data represents the African-Americans living in each New Jersey municipality as a percent of the total population based on the U.S. Census. 2010 | 2000 | 1990 | 1980
Asian The data reports the number of Asians, self-identified, by municipality as reported in the U.S. Census count for the New Jersey population. 2010 | 2000 | 1990 | 1980
% Asian Percent Asian represents the Asians living in each New Jersey municipality as a percent of the total population based on the U.S. Census. 2010 | 2000 | 1990 | 1980
Hispanic As reported, the data calculates the number of Hispanics, self-identified, by municipality as reported in the U.S. Census count for the New Jersey population. 2010 | 2000 | 1990 | 1980
% Hispanic The data represents the Hispanics living in each New Jersey municipality as a percent of the total population based on the U.S. Census. 2010 | 2000 | 1990 | 1980
# Age 0-5 The data measures the population in each municipality that is five years old and younger (for the 2000 to present), or the population under the age of 5 (prior to 2000) according to the U.S. Census, and provides an indication of upcoming school age children within a specific municipality, county, Congressional or Legislative District. 2010 | 2000 | 1990 | 1980
% Age 0-5 The data reports the population aged five years old and younger (from 2000 to present), or the population under the age of 5 (prior to 2000), as a percentage of the total population in a New Jersey municipality. 2010 | 2000 | 1990 | 1980
Age 65 + Age 65+ measures the population in each New Jersey municipality that is 65 years and older according to the U.S. Census, and provides information about the structure of the population for public and private interests, both socially and economically. 2010 | 2000 | 1990 | 1980
% Age 65 + As reported, the data indicates the percentage of the municipal population 65 years and older, and provides information in New Jersey. 2010 | 2000 | 1990 | 1980
PovertyExpand

Musician with Accordion on his back walking on the street

In order to provide a view of poverty in communities, the New Jersey Data Book reports the results of two federal programs administered in the state to aid low-income families. These measures provide a view of childhood poverty in particular, within the municipal footprint of New Jersey. Insights to where poverty is experienced can guide local policy makers and advocates.


Poverty Variables & Available Data

Data Variables Data Variable Description Available Years of Data

# TANF Children 

TANF %

The number of children aged 5-17 years old receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in the municipality as of January each year, reported by the Bureau of Research and Statistics, Division of Family Development, New Jersey Department of Human Services. The TANF program provides time limited assistance to families with children when the parents or other responsible relatives cannot provide for the family’s basic needs.

1992 - 2019

1995 & 1998 not available

# SNAP Beneficiaries

% SNAP Beneficiaries

Measures the number of beneficiaries receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance from the federal program to low-income individuals and families in New Jersey municipalities, reported by the Bureau of Research and Statistics, Division of Family Development, New Jersey Department of Human Services. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as the Food Stamp Program) is an important anti-hunger program for low-income New Jersey residents. 2013 - 2019
Property Tax BurdenExpand

Random City Skyline

Property Tax Burden has been measured in two ways:

  • the Equalized Property Tax Rate and
  • the Property Tax as an Estimated Percentage of resident Income

Equalized, or full value, property tax rates are shown in every municipality for the following purposes:

  • County government
  • Municipal government
  • School purposes
  • State tax rebates (negative)
  • Net tax rate

For county, municipal and school taxes, the amount of the tax levy shown in the county abstract of ratables is divided by the Equalized Valuation of the municipality and multiplied by 100 to calculate the equalized tax rate.


Property Tax Burden Variables & Available Data

Data Variables Data Variable Description Available Years of Data
County Government Tax Rate

Col. 12A5 – Net County Taxes Apportioned Less Municipal Budget State Aid

Col. 12Ba -  County Library Taxes

Col. 12Bb -  County Local Health Service Taxes

Col. 12Bc -  County Open Space Tax

2010 - 2018

Municipal Tax Rate

Col. 12Ciia – Local Taxes to be Raised for Local Municipal Purposes

Col. 12Ciib – Municipal Open Space

Col. 12Ciic – Municipal Library Budget

2010 - 2018
School Tax Rate

Col. 12Cia -  District School Budget

Col. 12Cib -  Regional, Consolidated and Joint School Budget

Col. 12Cic -  As Required by Local Municipal Budget

2010 - 2018
Rebate Tax Rate

A negative tax rate for State tax rebates is calculated by dividing the total amount of rebates paid to residents of the municipality by the Equalized Valuation, and multiplying the result by 100.

2010 - 2018
Net Tax Rate

The net tax rate is the sum of the tax rates for county, municipal, school and rebate tax rates.

2010 - 2018
Property Tax as % of Income

Property taxes as a percentage of the personal income of the residents of a municipality is estimated by:

(1) multiplying the total tax levy for county, municipal and school purposes by the percentage of property classified as residential, farm homestead, or apartment in order to find the taxes levied on properties in which residents live;

(2) multiplying this figure by the percentage of dwelling units found by the decennial Census to be occupied, in order to eliminate taxes paid by absentee owners, particularly owners of seasonal resort properties;

(3) deducting from the result all State tax rebates paid to residents of the municipality;

(4) dividing the resulting net tax levy paid by residents by the personal income reported by residents of the municipality and expressing the result as a percentage.

Tax levy data are from the county abstracts of ratables which, together with property classification data, are on the website of the New Jersey Division of Local Government Services. Personal income data and tax rebate data are from the New Jersey Department of Treasury.

2008 - 2014

School DataExpand

Two young students with pencil and book

All school data are from the New Jersey Department of Education.

Local school data are presented separately from municipal data because:

  1. school district boundaries do not always coincide with municipal boundaries, and
  2. school district finances are administered on a school year basis. A 2015 date indicates information for the 2014-15 school year.

In most cases, the boundaries of a school district are coterminous with the boundaries of a single municipality. However, many school districts are too small to provide full services to all grades from kindergarten through high school, so they either send some of their pupils to another school district and make tuition payments from their budget to that “receiving district”, or they become part of a regional or consolidated school district, in which case they share in the costs of that district according to statutory formulas.

Regional and consolidated districts may provide any combination of grades from Kindergarten through Grade 12, but most are either 7-12 or 9-12.


School District Variables & Available Data

Data Variables Data Variable Description Available Years of Data
School District ID

The School District ID (SD ID) is a unique identifying number assigned to each school district by the New Jersey Department of Education.

2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015

School District Type

A district may be a regular district (indicated by a dash) responsible for resident pupils at all grades, a regional (REG) or consolidated (CON) district covering several municipalities, or a county vocational district (VOC). A “merged” district (MRG) is so small that its activities have been transferred to a neighboring district, but some of its financial data are presented separately.

2015 - 2018

District Factor Group (DFG)

The District Factor Group is a classification given by the NJ Department of Education which organizes school districts by the socio-economic status of their inhabitants, based on the 2000 Census. Classifications extend from the lowest SES (A) to the highest (J).

2015 - 2018

Grade Pattern

The grade pattern gives the range of grades for the schools operated by the district.

2015 - 2018

Special School Arrangements

The Special School Arrangements denote membership in a regional, consolidated or merged school district or arrangements to send pupils from some grades to another district, with tuition paid by the district of residence.

2015 - 2018

Resident Enrollment

The number of pupils resident in the school district for whom the district is financially responsible.

2015 - 2018

Tax Levy

The general fund property tax levy in the school district’s budget.

2015 - 2018

State Aid

The total amount of K-12 formula State aid received by the district, plus State aid for pre-school education and for extraordinary special education.

2015 - 2018

School Budget

The sum of the Tax Levy and the State Aid. This figure approximates the revenue side of the budget, but does not include school district miscellaneous revenue, budgeted general fund balance, federal aid, school building aid, debt service tax levy, and tuition received.

2015 - 2018

State Aid as % of Budget

State Aid divided by the School Budget

2015 - 2018

Budget per Pupil

State Aid divided by the Resident Enrollment.

2015 - 2018

Equalized Valuation

The estimated total true value of all taxable property located within the school district.

2015 - 2018

Personal Income

The total reported personal income of all state income taxpayers residing within the school district.

2015 - 2018

EVPP

Equalized Valuation per Pupil

2015 - 2018

PIPP

Personal Income per Pupil

2015 - 2018

Wealth Ratio: EVPP

The Equalized Valuation per Pupil of the school district divided by the state average Equalized Valuation per Pupil.

2015 - 2018

Wealth Ratio: PIPP

The Personal Income per Pupil of the school district divided by the state average Personal Income per Pupil.

2015 - 2018
 

For those school districts that operate high schools, the number of pupils entering the ninth grade four years prior to the graduation year, adjusted for transfers in and out during that period.

2015 - 2018

Graduated Count

For those school districts that operate high schools, the number of high school graduates in the year indicated. 2015 - 2018

High School Graduation Rate

For those school districts that operate high schools, the number of high school graduates as a percentage of the Adjusted Cohort Count. 2015 - 2018
Test Performance - Grade 4

Test results are reported for the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) tests at the 4th and 8th grade levels in:

  • English Language (ELA)
  • Mathematics

For each test, the number of pupils completing the test is displayed (Valid Scores) and the percentage of test-takers scoring at each level is reported:

  • Percent Meeting Expectations
  • Percent Exceeding Expectations
2015 - 2018

Test Performance - Grade 8

Test results are reported for the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) tests at the 4th and 8th grade levels in:

  • English Language (ELA)
  • Mathematics

For each test, the number of pupils completing the test is displayed (Valid Scores) and the percentage of test-takers scoring at each level is reported:

  • Percent Meeting Expectations
  • Percent Exceeding Expectations
2015 - 2018

Test Performance - Grade 11

Test results are reported for the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) tests 

at the 11th grade level in:

  • English Language (ELA)
  • Algebra I
  • Geometry
  • Algebra II

For each test, the number of pupils completing the test is displayed (Valid Scores) and the percentage of test-takers scoring at each level is reported:

  • Percent Meeting Expectations
  • Percent Exceeding Expectations
2015 - 2018
Voters & TurnoutExpand

Random City Skyline

The New Jersey Data Book reports the number of registered voters in each election year, as well as the party affiliations of the registered voters. 

Data have been gathered from reports of the Elections Division, New Jersey Department of State with party registrations provided by the county superintendents of elections or boards of election.


Voters & Turnout Variables & Available Data

Data Variables Data Variable Description Available Years of Data
Registered Voters As reported by municipality in the U.S. decennial Census, the land area of the community rounded to the nearest hundreth of a mile.

1983 - 2018

2001 unavailable

Registered Voters as % of Population The municipal population density is calculated by dividing the estimated population from the New Jersey State Data Center estimates by the area in square miles.

1983 - 2018

2001 unavailable

% Democrats The percentage of registered voters declared as Democrats.

1983 - 2018

2001 unavailable

% Republicans The percentage of registered voters declared as Republicans.

1983 - 2018

2001 unavailable

% Voter Turnout

The number of ballots cast as a percentage of the number of persons registered to vote in the general elections of the years reported.

1983 - 2018

2001 unavailable